NOMURA Koji

写真a

Affiliation

Research Centers and Institutes, Keio Economic Observatory (Mita)

Position

Professor

E-mail Address

E-mail address

Career 【 Display / hide

  • 1996.04
    -
    2003.03

    Keio University,, Keio Economic Observatory,, Assistant Professor

  • 2003.04
    -
    2005.03

    Harvard University,, Kennedy School of Government,, CBG fellow

  • 2003.04
    -
    2017.03

    Keio University,, Keio Economic Observatory,, Associate Professor

  • 2005.07
    -
    2008.09

    Cabinet Office, Government of Japan,, ESRI (Economic Social Research Institute),, Visiting Fellow

  • 2006.11
    -
    2007.08

    OECD, STI (Directorate for Science, Technology and Industry),, Economist

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Academic Background 【 Display / hide

  • 1989.03

    Hakodate Chubu High School, Hokkaido

    Graduated

  • 1993.03

    Keio University, Faculty of Business and Commerce

    University, Graduated

  • 1995.03

    Keio University, Graduate School of Business and Commerce

    Graduate School, Completed, Master's course

  • 1998.03

    Keio University, Graduate School of Business and Commerce

    Graduate School, Withdrawal after completion of doctoral course requirements, Doctoral course

Academic Degrees 【 Display / hide

  • M.A., Keio University, Coursework, 1995.03

  • Ph.D, Keio University, Dissertation, 2005

 

Research Areas 【 Display / hide

  • Economic statistics

  • Economic policy

Research Keywords 【 Display / hide

  • Economic Growth, Capital and Productivity

  • Energy and Environment

  • Labor Input and Human Capital

  • Japanese and Asian Economies

 

Books 【 Display / hide

  • Energy Productivity in Japan's Economic Growth (in Japanese)

    Koji Nomura, Keio University Press, 2021.06,  Page: 288

    Scope: pp.1-288

     View Summary

    拙速なエネルギー環境政策の強化が更なる経済停滞を招く危険を説いた警世の書。日本のエネルギー効率が「環境規制」によってではなく「経済成長」下で改善されてきた事実を示し、2050年「脱炭素社会」を見据え、その移行期における国際的に調和したエネルギー環境政策を提言する。

    目次
    第1章 経済成長とエネルギー
    第2章 エネルギー生産性改善の源泉
    第3章 エネルギー価格高騰に対する耐性
    第4章 エネルギー生産性と全体効率
    第5章 間接的な電力輸入
    第6章 日本のエネルギー転換に向けて

  • Measurement of Capital and Productivity in Japan (in Japanese)

    Koji Nomura, Keio University Press, 2004.11,  Page: 660

    Scope: pp.1-660

     View Summary

    わが国の資本形成から資本ストックの蓄積、資本サービスへの変換、資本サービス投入による経済成長への寄与まで、生産と資本、資本と生産を結ぶ整合ある測定を行い、日米比較とともに高度成長期から2000年までの経済成長を描いた本格的実証分析。

    目次
    第1章 資本の測定
    第2章 資本ストック
    第3章 資本サービス価格
    第4章 資本サービスと経済成長
    補章
    終章 結びとして

  • APO Productivity Databook 2021

    Koji Nomura and Fukunari Kimura, Asian Productivity Organization, Keio University Press, 2021.10

    Scope: pp.1-199

     View Summary

    In the 60th anniversary year of the foundation of APO, we present the fourteenth edition of the APO Productivity Databook. The Databook aims to provide a useful reference for the quality of economic growth and productivity, which is comparable across countries at different development stages in Asia. This edition covers almost half a century, from 1970 to 2019, with our projections of economic growth and labor productivity improvements through 2030.
    The only route to sustainable economic growth in the long run is through productivity gains that enable an economy to produce more for the same amount of inputs, or to consume less to produce the same amount of outputs. Thus, it follows that monitoring and improving national productivity are important targets of public policy.
    Baseline indicators on economic growth and productivity are calculated for 31 Asian economies, representing the 21 Asian Productivity Organization member economies (APO21) and the 10 non-member economies in Asia. The APO21 consists of Bangladesh, Cambodia, the Republic of China (ROC), Fiji, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, the Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran), Japan, the Republic of Korea (Korea), the Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Lao PDR), Malaysia, Mongolia, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Turkey, and Vietnam. The 10 non-member economies in Asia are: the Kingdom of Bhutan (Bhutan), Brunei Darussalam (Brunei), the People’s Republic of China (China), Myanmar, and the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) consisting of Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). In addition, Australia, the European Union (EU), and the United States (US) are included as reference economies.
    The analyses in the Databook series are based on the comprehensive productivity accounts (APO Productivity Database), which have been developed by a joint research effort between the APO and the Keio Economic Observatory (KEO), Keio University, since 2007. In this edition of the Databook, the productivity accounts are developed for 25 Asian economies (Asia25) – the APO21 plus Bhutan, Brunei, China, and Myanmar – along with the US as a reference economy. This edition reflects the revised productivity account for China in APO Productivity Database 2021, based on our study with Professor W. Erwin Diewert (University of British Columbia).

  • APO Productivity Databook 2020

    Koji Nomura and Fukunari Kimura, Asian Productivity Organization, Keio University Press, 2020.10

    Scope: pp.1-190

     View Summary

    Productivity gains enable an economy to produce more for the same amount of inputs, or to consume less to produce the same amount of outputs. These gains are the only route to sustainable economic growth in the long run. Thus, it follows that monitoring and improving national productivity capability are important targets of public policy. In this thirteenth edition of the APO Productivity Databook series, a useful reference is provided for the quality of economic growth and productivity, which is comparable across countries at different development stages in Asia, covering the period from 1970 to 2018.

    In this edition, baseline indicators on economic growth and productivity are calculated for 31 Asian economies, representing the 21 Asian Productivity Organization member economies (APO21) and the 10 non-member economies in Asia. The APO21 consists of Bangladesh, Cambodia, the Republic of China (ROC), Fiji, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, the Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran), Japan, the Republic of Korea (Korea), the Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Lao PDR), Malaysia, Mongolia, Nepal, Pakistan,the Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Turkey, and Vietnam. The 10 non-member economies in Asia are: the Kingdom of Bhutan (Bhutan), Brunei Darussalam (Brunei), the People’s Republic of China (China), Myanmar, and the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) consisting of Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). In addition, Australia, the European Union (EU), and the United States (US) are included as reference economies.

  • Benchmark 2011 integrated estimates of the Japan-US price-level index for industry outputs

    Nomura K., Miyagawa K., Samuels J.D., Measuring Economic Growth and Productivity: Foundations, KLEMS Production Models, and Extensions, 2019.11

     View Summary

    This paper provides new benchmark estimates of industry-level price differentials between Japan and the United States for 2011 based on a bilateral price accounting model anchored to the Japan-US input-output tables. We apply the model to translate available demand-side data on purchaser's price purchasing power parities (PPPs) for final uses (e.g., the Eurostat-OECD PPPs) and intermediate uses (e.g., the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry [METI] survey) to unmeasured producer's price PPPs for industry output. These PPPs allow us to produce price-level indexes at the industry level, which we use to assess price competitiveness between Japan and the United States We conclude that price competitiveness of Japanese service industries has considerably improved in the more recent time period. However, Japanese producers have a significant price disadvantage in comparison to their US counterparts in electricity and gas supply, and most of the agricultural producing industries.

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Papers 【 Display / hide

  • "Effective Rates of Protection in the U.S. and Japanese Industries" (in Japanese)

    Koji Nomura

    Economic Statistics Research (Keizai Sangyo Toukei Kyokai)  48 ( Ⅲ ) 16 - 46 2020.12

    Research paper (bulletin of university, research institution), Single Work, Except for reviews

     View Summary

    本稿は日米両国における商品別輸入相手国別関税マトリックス(関税額および従価税換算関税率)を構築し、日米国際産業連関表のフレームワークのもとで関税による産業保護率の日米格差を測定することを目的としている。関税による産業保護率の指標として、産業の生産物に対する名目保護率、中間投入される輸入財(輸入中間財)に課される関税を考慮した有効保護率とともに、本稿では間接的な輸入中間財の投入に課される関税を考慮した有効保護率を定義し、2011年、2015年および2018年を対象とした測定をおこなう。直接間接的な輸入中間財に課される関税を考慮すれば、食料品や農林水産品などに傾斜して保護的となる日本の関税体系は、自動車製造業や機械製造業などでは間接効果を含んだ有効保護率が負値となることが示される。製造業における競争力棄損を回避するためには、ネットの有効保護率として非保護効果が上回るような現行関税体系の見直しが求められる。

  • "Measurement of Labor Shares and Quality-adjusted Labor Inputs in Vietnam, 1970–2018"

    Koji Nomura and Hiroshi Shirane

    KEO Discussion Paper (Keio Economic Observatory, Keio University)   ( 156 )  2020.12

    Research paper (bulletin of university, research institution), Joint Work, Except for reviews

     View Summary

    One of the largest obstacles to developing a productivity account in Vietnam is the lack of the estimate on compensations of employees in the System of National Accounts. This paper constructs the data for Vietnam on hours worked by type of workers, which are cross classified by gender, education attainment, age, and employment status, and on hourly wages in each type of labor for the period 1970–2018. The data constructed in this paper is used to estimate labor share at the aggregate level, which has a micro foundation, and to develop the measure of the quality-adjusted labor input. Our estimates show that the improvement in labor quality was very modest at an annual rate of 0.1% from 1970 to 2000, but accelerated to an average of 1.9% per year from 2000 to 2018, accounting for 57.9% of the growth of quality-adjusted labor input of 3.3%.

  • "Measurement of Effective Import Dependency of Electricity” (in Japanese)

    Koji Nomura

    RCGW Discussion Paper (Research Center of Global Warming, Research Institute of Capital Formation, Development Bank of Japan)   ( 65 )  2020.09

    Research paper (bulletin of university, research institution), Single Work, Except for reviews

     View Summary

    日本では直接的な電力輸入は無くとも、電力多消費的な最終財や中間財の国内生産を縮小し輸入へと切り替えることでは、間接的に電力を輸入しているものと解される。本稿では、間接的な電力輸入への依存度を示す指標として、最終需要構造や国際分業を反映した実効輸入依存度(Effective Import Dependency:EID)を構築し、日本経済における電力EIDの変化を測定する。1960年から2015年までの長期にわたる観察期間において、日本経済の電力EIDには、第一次オイルショック後の上昇期、1980年代からの低下期、そして1990年代半ばからの再上昇期という大きく三つの変動期が見いだされる。とくに近年の再上昇期では、一国経済の電力EIDは1995年の10.3%から2015年には21.9%へと倍増しており、近年の国内電力需要における低迷の背景には、間接的な電力輸入の拡大があったことを示唆している。省エネ政策による規制強化は、間接輸入の拡大により見かけ上の電力・エネルギー消費量の国内削減を実現しようとも、さらなる産業空洞化と低成長をもたらすことが危惧される。

  • "Measurement of Price, Quantity, and Quality of Education Service in Japan – Output Volume Method, Input Method, Hybrid Method, and Hedonic Method" (in Japanese)

    Koji Nomura

    New ESRI Working Paper (Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI), Cabinet Office)   ( 51 )  2020.08

    Research paper (bulletin of university, research institution), Single Work, Except for reviews

     View Summary

    本稿は、日本の国民経済計算体系(JSNA)における教育の質の変化を反映した価格・数量指数の測定のため、学校教育サービスに関するクロス分類データとして構築された「教育サービス産出データベース」(ESJ)および「教育分析用拡張産業連関表(EIOT)」の長期時系列推計値に基づき、I.単純産出数量法、II.産出数量法、III.投入法、IV.ハイブリッド法、そしてV.ヘドニック法の体系的な適用をおこなう。教育サービスの産出量を定義する観察可能な産出指標としては、教育サービスの消費者としての視点から生徒数(欠席率の変化を考慮済み)および総生徒授業時間、またその生産者としての視点から総教員授業時間の3つが定義され、上記の方法論に基づく1955年から2017年までの日本の教育サービス産出における価格・数量指数の推計値により、望ましい測定論に関する検討をおこなう。
    産出数量法および投入法による価格・数量指数の推計値によっては、教育サービスの品質変化に関する指標として、間接品質指数が定義される。それはESJで教育サービスに関する品質指標として直接に観察される複数の直接品質指数、またV.ヘドニック法の適用によってそれらが集計された直接品質指数との比較によって、長期にわたる教育サービスの品質変化に関する測定値の検討がおこなわれる。公立小・中学校におけるV.ヘドニック法の適用によれば、品質調整済みの価格・数量指数としての推計値は、長期傾向としてIV.ハイブリッド法による推計値に類似したものとなっている。IV.ハイブリッド法は、狭義の教育活動(a1)のみに産出数量法、その補助的活動(a2)には投入法を適用したものであり、III.投入法に代わりうる有効なアプローチであると評価される。

  • "Toward Improvement of Input Method for Measuring Education Services in JSNA – Construction of Extended Input-Output Table for Education Services (EIOT) in 1955–2017" (in Japanese)

    Koji Nomura

    New ESRI Working Paper (Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI), Cabinet Office)   ( 50 )  2020.08

    Research paper (bulletin of university, research institution), Single Work, Except for reviews

     View Summary

    本稿は教育部門分析用拡張産業連関表(Extended Input-Output Table for Education Service:EIOT)の長期時系列表(1955–2017年を対象とした名目・実質表)を構築し、日本の国民経済計算(JSNA)における教育サービス産出における推計精度を検討しながら、現行の投入法による測定の精度改善の方向性を探ることを目的としている。構築されるEIOTは、その行部門(商品分類)を産業連関表基本表における基本分類と対応しながら、列部門として基本表における教育部門(国公立および私立の二部門)を詳細な教育主体別へと細分化した「主体別EIOT」、また教育主体によって提供される複合的なサービス生産を活動別に再定義した「スキル別EIOT」の二種類からなる。
    非市場産出である教育サービス生産は、国公私立といった異なる制度部門によって提供され、狭義の教育サービスに加えて給食や研究活動など複合的な活動を含むものであり、その測定はSNAとしての統計概念に基づく複雑なプロセスに基づく。本稿での検討によれば、現行JSNAにおける教育サービスの国内生産額の推計値は1980年代より継続的に2–3兆円の過小に評価されている可能性が指摘される。それは基本表におけるベンチマーク推計値における時系列的な不安定性にも起因している。また1994年以降では、現行JSNA推計では付加価値価格指数の低下が大きく、教育サービス生産の成長率を過大評価する傾向にあると考えられる。本稿での主体的およびスキル別EIOTにおける投入法の適用と教育サービスの構造変化に関する多面的な評価は、教育サービス産出の測定法として投入法というアプローチの有効性を再評価させる。

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Papers, etc., Registered in KOARA 【 Display / hide

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Reviews, Commentaries, etc. 【 Display / hide

  • Six-Fold Pain of the Japanese Economy (in Japanese)

    Koji Nomura

    Wave (Denki Shimbun) (The Denki Shimbun)   2021.11

    Introduction and explanation (commerce magazine), Single Work

  • Quantity and Quality of Green Jobs - A Weak Foundation for Green Growth Strategies (in Japanese)

    Koji Nomura

    Energy Policy Report (Energy Forum Inc.)   2021.09

    Introduction and explanation (commerce magazine), Single Work

  • Relics of the Green Sahara (in Japanese)

    Koji Nomura

    Wave (Denki Shimbun) (The Denki Shimbun)   2021.09

    Introduction and explanation (commerce magazine), Single Work

  • Reckless Policy for Energy Saving (in Japanese)

    Koji Nomura

    Wave (Denki Shimbun) (The Denki Shimbun)   2021.08

    Introduction and explanation (commerce magazine), Single Work

  • "Major Policy Changes Needed to Achieve Balance with Economic Growth" (in Japanese)

    Koji Nomura

    Energy Forum (Energy Forum Inc.)   ( 800 ) 22 - 23 2021.08

    Introduction and explanation (commerce magazine), Single Work

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Presentations 【 Display / hide

  • "Japan's Economic Growth and Enegy" (in Japanese)

    Koji Nomura

    Seminar, 2021.11, Oral Presentation(general), Institute for Monetary and Economic Studies, Bank of Japan

  • "Challenges of the Energy Transition in the Japanese Economy: Resilience to Increasing Energy Costs and Quality of Employment" (in Japanese)

    Koji Nomura

    Green Forum 21, 2021.11, Oral Presentation(general), The Nikkan Kogyo Shimbun

  • "Japan's Economic Growth and Energy Productivity: A Perspective on the Long-Term Energy Transition" (in Japanese)

    Koji Nomura

    Energy and Society in 2050: A Bird's Eye View, 2021.09, Oral Presentation(general), Japan Society of Energy and Resources

  • "Economic Evaluation of the "Creative Future": How to Envision the Economy Realized by Society 5.0" (in Japanese)

    Koji Nomura

    Keidanren, 2021.08, Oral Presentation(general), Keidanren

  • "Vulnerability of the Japanese Economy to Energy Price Fluctuations, 1955-2016" (in Japanese)

    Koji Nomura

    RITE ALPS III, 2020.11, Oral Presentation(general), RITE

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Works 【 Display / hide

  • Development of KEO Database 2021 (Industry-Level Productivity Database)

    Koji Nomura, Hiroshi Shirane, and Shiori Nakayama

    Keio Economic Observatory, Keio University, 

    2021.01
    -
    2021.03

    Database, Joint

  • Development of APO Productivity Database 2021

    Koji Nomura, Hiroshi Shirane, and Shiori Nakayama

    Asian Productivity Organization and Keio Economic Observatory, 

    2020.10
    -
    2021.07

    Database, Joint

  • Development of Asia QALI Database 2021

    Koji Nomura and Hiroshi Shirane

    Keio Economic Observatory, Keio University, 

    2020.10
    -
    2021.06

    Database, Joint

  • Development of KEO Database 2020 (Industry-Level Productivity Database)

    Koji Nomura, Hiroshi Shirane, and Shiori Nakayama

    Keio Economic Observatory, Keio University, 

    2020.03
    -
    2020.06

    Database, Joint

  • Development of Asia QALI Database 2020

    Koji Nomura and Hiroshi Shirane

    Keio Economic Observatory, Keio University, 

    2020.01
    -
    2020.06

    Database, Joint

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Awards 【 Display / hide

  • The 48th Nikkei Award (Nikkei Keizai-Tosho-Bunka-Sho)

    Koji Nomura, 2005.11, Nihon Keizai Shimbun, Measurement of Capital and Productivity

    Type of Award: Awards of Publisher, Newspaper Company and Foundation

  • Keio Award

    Koji Nomura, 2005.11, Keio Univeristy

    Type of Award: Keio commendation etc.

 

Courses Taught 【 Display / hide

  • THEORY OF INDEX NUMBERS

    2021

  • SEMINAR (QD)

    2021

  • SEMINAR (QC)

    2021

  • SEMINAR (QB)(PAST YEARS)

    2021

  • SEMINAR (QB)

    2021

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Social Activities 【 Display / hide

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Committee Experiences 【 Display / hide

  • 2021.08
    -
    2023.03

    Committee Member (Chairman), Committee on Measuring Infrastructure Stock, Cabinet Office, Government of Japan

  • 2021.07
    -
    2022.03

    Committee Member, MRA (Commissioned by Economic and Social Research Institute, Cabinet Office) Committee on the Methodology for Identifying Price and Real Output Reflecting Changes in the Quality of Education

  • 2021.07
    -
    2022.03

    Committee member, Committee on Energy System Research, APIR (Asia Pacific Institute of Reseach)

  • 2021.06
    -
    2022.03

    Editorial Board Member, "Economic Analysis" Editorial Board, Economic and Social Research Institute, Cabinet Office, Government of Japan

  • 2021.05
    -
    2022.03

    Committee Member, Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth (RITE), Technical Committee for International Strategy against Global Warming

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