Akabayashi, Hideo



Faculty of Economics (Mita)



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  • 教育と家族の経済学に関する研究を行っています。応用ミクロ経済学の手法に基づき、理論的基礎付けと綿密なデータ分析により、経済学的知見と政策的な意義のある研究を目指しています。研究対象となる地域は限定せず、方法としては、テーマにより理論・実証両方を使っています。従って、アイデアと根気が勝負と思っていますので、その点では負けない自信のある皆さんとの出会いを楽しみにしています。現在は、日本の教育政策の分析と教育格差の国際比較にほぼ集中しています。

Career 【 Display / hide

  • 1988.04

    Ministry of International Trade and Industry, Official

  • 1995.08

    University of Miami, Department of Economics, School of Business, Visiting instructor

  • 1996.07

    Consultant economist, World Bank

  • 1997.04

    慶應義塾大学, 経済学部, 助教授

  • 1997.10


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Academic Background 【 Display / hide

  • 1996.06

    Other, Graduate School, Division of Economics

    United States, Graduate School, Completed, Doctoral course

  • 1988.03

    The University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, General Systems Studies

    Graduate School, Completed, Master's course

  • 1986.03

    The University of Tokyo, College of Arts and Sciences, Natural and Artificial Systems

    University, Graduated

Academic Degrees 【 Display / hide

  • Ph.D., University of Chicago, 1996.06

Matters concerning Career Achievements 【 Display / hide

  • 2010.06

    Founder, Gaccom, Inc.

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Research Areas 【 Display / hide

  • Humanities & Social Sciences / Public economics and labor economics (Economics of Education, Family Economics, Labor Economics)

  • Humanities & Social Sciences / Economic policy (Public Policy, Education Policy)

  • Humanities & Social Sciences / Sociology of education (Comparative Education Policy)

Research Keywords 【 Display / hide

  • Panel data

  • Microeconometrics

  • Human capital

  • Child Development

  • academic achievement test

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Research Themes 【 Display / hide

  • International Comparison of Educational Inequality and Policies, 


  • Microeconometric study of child's academic achievement, behavior, and family background using a longitudinal survey., 


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    We analyse dynamic interrelationship between child's academic achievement, behavior, and influence of family using a unique longitudinal survey of parents and children, Japan Chill Panel Survey.

  • Empirical studies of education policy in Japan, 


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    Analysis of recent education policies such as school choice, private school subsidy, class size reduction, diversification of school types in terms of their effects on the educational achievement of local children. Analysis of impacts of national university policy on private higher education market.

  • Theoretical and experimental study of family education, 


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    We use economic modeling and lab experiments to uncover the underlying mechanism of parental education style in the family.


Books 【 Display / hide

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Papers 【 Display / hide

  • Causal effect of parental reading on later development of children: Demonstrating a Bayesian approach

    Shigemasu K., Kono M., Ikemoto S., Akabayashi H.

    British Journal of Developmental Psychology (British Journal of Developmental Psychology)   2024

    ISSN  0261510X

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    This study examined the relationship between early parental treatment, specifically reading to young children and later cognitive development with a Bayesian perspective. Previous research established a positive link between parental reading to infants and their cognitive development, such as receptive vocabulary, reading comprehension and motivation to read. Using data from the Millennium Cohort Study, this study analysed individuals aged 9 months to 22 years to investigate the effects of early reading to young children on nine cognitive variables. Bayesian statistical analysis controlled for pre-existing differences and covariates to establish a causal association between reading and cognitive development. The results indicated that reading to infants and toddlers positively impacted their cognitive development beyond reading skills. These findings demonstrate the usefulness of the Bayesian approach in determining scientific significance and underscore the importance of early literacy interventions in promoting cognitive development.

  • Student loan debt and family formation of youth in Japan

    Wang J., Akabayashi H., Kobayashi M., Sano S.

    Studies in Higher Education (Studies in Higher Education)   2024

    ISSN  03075079

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    Since the late 1990s, the number of college student loan debtors has increased rapidly in Japan. Despite the uniqueness of Japanese higher education policies in terms of tuition levels and heavy reliance on educational loans rather than grants, few studies have focused on the influence of student loans on adult youths’ lives. This study is the first to provide a detailed analysis of the relationship between student loan debt and youth life events. We explored the impact of student loan debt on family formation, using a data set of college graduates collected in 2017. We employed survival analysis methods to understand the relationship between student loan debt and marital decisions, and negative binomial models to analyze the impact of this debt on childbearing. The results showed that 2-year college graduate women with student loan debt were more likely to delay marital decisions than women without student loan debt. Taking out student loans also had a negative correlation to childbearing, which was also stronger for 2-year college graduate women. In conclusion, this study revealed that the Japanese government’s reliance on student loans has unexpected consequences. Even following recent reforms, student loan debt continues to be a major financial burden for young Japanese people and is likely to negatively affect family formation in Japan, which has already seen a decline in marriage and fertility rates over the last few decades. Our results call for additional policies to mitigate the negative influence of the Japanese college student aid system.

  • Inequalities in Resources for Preschool-Age Children by Parental Education: Evidence from Six Advanced Industrialized Countries

    Waldfogel J., Kwon S.J., Wang Y., Washbrook L., Casoni V.P., Olczyk M., Schneider T., Panico L., Solaz A., Weinert S., Volodina A., de la Rie S., Keizer R., Nozaki K., Yamashita J., Kameyama Y., Akabayashi H.

    European Journal of Population (European Journal of Population)  39 ( 1 )  2023.12

    ISSN  01686577

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    This paper provides new evidence on inequalities in resources for children age 3–4 by parental education using harmonized data from six advanced industrialized countries—United States, United Kingdom, France, Germany, Netherlands, and Japan—that represent different social welfare regime types. We analyze inequalities in two types of resources for young children—family income, and center-based child care—applying two alternative measures of parental education—highest parental education, and maternal education. We hypothesize that inequalities in resources by parental education will be less pronounced in countries where social policies are designed to be more equalizing. The results provide partial support for this hypothesis: the influence of parental education on resources for children does vary by the social policy context, although not in all cases. We also find that the measurement of parental education matters: income disparities are smaller under a maternal-only definition whereas child care disparities are larger. Moreover, the degree of divergence between the two sets of estimates differs across countries. We provide some of the first systematic evidence about how resources for young children vary depending on parents’ education and the extent to which such inequalities are buffered by social policies. We find that while early inequalities are a fact of life in all six countries, the extent of those inequalities varies considerably. Moreover, the results suggest that social policy plays a role in moderating the influence of parental education on resources for children.

  • Education-oriented and care-oriented preschools: Implications on child development

    Akabayashi H., Ruberg T., Shikishima C., Yamashita J.

    Labour Economics (Labour Economics)  84 2023.10

    ISSN  09275371

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    This paper estimates the causal effect of education-oriented vs. care-oriented preschools on child development. We use a unique quasi-experiment from Japan that exploits plausibly exogenous regional and temporal variation in the relative availability of different preschools. We find that attendance at an education-oriented preschool is associated with significant improvements in mathematical and linguistic achievement that manifest later in adolescence. Positive effects can also be found for socioemotional measures. Ascending marginal treatment effect (MTE) curves suggest an inverse selection pattern: children that are least likely to enroll in the education-oriented preschool gain the most from it. This heterogeneity is mainly due to specific features of education-oriented preschools (i.e., educational orientation, the interaction with parents due to shorter operating hours, and peer effects), while gains from enrollment in care-oriented preschools appear more homogeneous.

  • International differences in gradients in early childhood overweight and obesity: the role of maternal employment and formal childcare attendance

    Panico L., Boinet C., Akabayashi H., De La Rie S., Kwon S.J., Kameyama Y., Keizer R., Nozaki K., Perinetti Casoni V., Volodina A., Waldfogel J., Weinert S., Washbrook E.

    European Journal of Public Health (European Journal of Public Health)  33 ( 3 ) 468 - 475 2023.06

    ISSN  11011262

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    Background: There are significant cross-country differences in socio-economic gradients in later childhood and adulthood overweight/obesity; few studies assess whether this cross-national variation is evident from early childhood. Furthermore, the role of childcare in explaining overweight/obesity gradients might vary across countries, given differences in access, quality and heterogeneity within. Additionally, childcare is linked to parental characteristics such as maternal employment. The interplay between childcare and employment in producing early overweight/obesity gradients has received little attention, and might vary cross-nationally. Methods: Using harmonized data from six high-quality, large datasets, we explore the variation in gradients in early overweight/obesity (at age 3-4 years old) by parental education across several high-income countries (USA, UK, France, the Netherlands, Germany and Japan). We then assess whether differential formal group care use attenuates some of these gradients, and whether this varies across maternal employment. Results: Gradients in early childhood overweight/obesity by parental education are evident across several developed countries. Countries with higher overall prevalence of early overweight/obesity did not have the largest inequalities across education groups. The contribution of formal group care to producing these gradients varied across countries and across maternal employment status. Conclusion: Early childhood inequalities in overweight/obesity are pervasive across developed countries, as noted for older children and adults. However, mechanisms producing these gradients vary across national contexts. Our study shows that, given the right context, quality childcare and maternal employment can successfully support healthy weight trajectories and not contribute (or even reduce) social inequalities in early overweight/obesity.

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Papers, etc., Registered in KOARA 【 Display / hide

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Reviews, Commentaries, etc. 【 Display / hide

  • 教育関係者はエビデンスと冷静に向き合うべき


    教職研修 (教育開発研究所)     95 - 97 2015.08

    Article, review, commentary, editorial, etc. (trade magazine, newspaper, online media), Single Work

  • 少人数学級政策の教育効果の不都合な真実


    Synodos (シノドス)   2015.02

    Article, review, commentary, editorial, etc. (trade magazine, newspaper, online media), Single Work

  • わが国における教育経済データの現状と課題


    経済セミナー (日本評論社)  February/March   27 - 33 2005.02

    Article, review, commentary, editorial, etc. (trade magazine, newspaper, online media), Single Work

Presentations 【 Display / hide

  • 日本における教育のパネルデータ・実験データの収集経済学の立場からの実践と課題


    日本教育社会学会第67回大会 (駒澤大学(東京)) , 


    Oral presentation (invited, special), 日本教育社会学会

  • Dynamics of Educational Inequality among Children in Japan: Findings from the First Four Years of the Japan Child Panel Survey

    Akabayashi, H., R. Nakamura, M. Naoi, K. Nozaki, S. Sano, W. Senoh, ,C. Shikishima, and J. Yamashita

    20th International Panel Data Conference (Hototsubashi University, Tokyo, Japan) , 


    Oral presentation (general), International Panel Data Conference

  • "Determinants of Cognitive and Non-cognitive Outcomes in Japan: Findings fromJapan Child Panel Survey (JCPS):2010-2012,"


    Children Youth and Families: Mini-Conference on International Perspectives on Child and Youth Health and Development (Columbia University) , 


    Oral presentation (general)

  • "Long-Term Effects of Preschooling on Educational Attainments,"


    WEAI (東京) , 


    Oral presentation (general)

  • 「政策研究のための教育データの現状と日本子どもパネル調査」


    教育経済・教育政策コンフェレンス (慶應義塾大学) , 


    Oral presentation (general), 慶應義塾大学

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Research Projects of Competitive Funds, etc. 【 Display / hide

  • Higher Education Policy after COVID19: Empirical Analysis and Policy Disign with Perspectives from Behavioral Economics


    Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research, Grant-in-Aid for Challenging Research (Exploratory), No Setting

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  • Structure and change of broader inequality since the COVID-19 crisis: Economics research based on household panel data


    Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research, Grant-in-Aid for Specially Promoted Research, No Setting

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  • Research on Educational Inequality in the Post-COVID-19 Era: Investigating Global Issues Through Innovation of Online Survey and Experimental Methods


    Keio University, Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research, Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (S), No Setting

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  • An empirical study of the effects of student financial aid


    Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research, Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B), No Setting

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  • 長寿社会における世代間移転と経済格差: パネルデータによる政策評価分析


    Keio University, Grant-in-Aid for Specially Promoted Research, No Setting

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    「日本家計パネル調査」については、本調査を実施するとともに「第二世代調査」の2回目の調査を実施した。また、本調査と第二世代調査では紙への記入による回答方法に加え、独自に作成したWEB画面による回答方法も提供し、回収率の向上につとめた。さらに、日本を代表するパネルデータとして、ルクセンブルク所得研究(LIS)への「日本家計パネル調査」や、オハイオ州立大学が指揮をとる国際パネルデータベースCross-National Equivalent File(CNEF)への提供を継続した。このほか、パネルデータの質の維持・向上のため、「日本家計パネル調査」の標本脱落やサンプル追加により発生するサンプリングバイアスの修正を行うウェイトの作成を欧州・豪州の専門家や家計パネルデータの設計・解析機関と連携して進めた。

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Courses Taught 【 Display / hide











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Memberships in Academic Societies 【 Display / hide

  • Japanese Economic Association, 

  • Econometric Society, 

  • American Economic Associatoin, 

  • Japan Society of Educational Sociology,