森 信之介 (モリ シンノスケ)

Mori, Shinnosuke

写真a

所属(所属キャンパス)

商学部 (日吉)

職名

助教(有期)

 

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  • Floral pigments and their perception by avian pollinators in three Chilean Puya species

    Mizuno T., Mori S., Sugahara K., Yukawa T., Koi S., Iwashina T.

    Journal of Plant Research (Journal of Plant Research)  2024年

    ISSN  09189440

     概要を見る

    The Chilean Puya species, Puya coerulea var. violacea and P. chilensis bear blue and pale-yellow flowers, respectively, while P. alpestris considered to be their hybrid-derived species has unique turquoise flowers. In this study, the chemical basis underlying the different coloration of the three Puya species was explored. We first isolated and identified three anthocyanins: delphinidin 3,3ʹ,5ʹ-tri-O-glucoside, delphinidin 3,3′-di-O-glucoside and delphinidin 3-O-glucoside; seven flavonols: quercetin 3-O-rutinoside-3′-O-glucoside, quercetin 3,3ʹ-di-O-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-rutinoside, isorhamnetin 3-O-rutinoside, myricetin 3,3ʹ,5ʹ-tri-O-glucoside, myricetin 3,3ʹ-di-O-glucoside and laricitrin 3,5ʹ-di-O-glucoside; and six flavones: luteolin 4ʹ-O-glucoside, apigenin 4′-O-glucoside, tricetin 4ʹ-O-glucoside, tricetin 3ʹ,5ʹ-di-O-glucoside, tricetin 3ʹ-O-glucoside and selagin 5ʹ-O-glucoside, which is a previously undescribed flavone, from their petals. We also compared compositions of floral flavonoid and their aglycone among these species, which suggested that the turquoise species P. alpestris has an essentially intermediate composition between the blue and pale-yellow species. The vacuolar pH was relatively higher in the turquoise (pH 6.2) and pale-yellow (pH 6.2) flower species, while that of blue flower species was usual (pH 5.2). The flower color was reconstructed in vitro using isolated anthocyanin, flavonol and flavone at neutral and acidic pH, and its color was analyzed by reflectance spectra and the visual modeling of their avian pollinators. The modeling demonstrated that the higher pH of the turquoise and pale-yellow species enhances the chromatic contrast and spectral purity. The precise regulation of flower color by flavonoid composition and vacuolar pH may be adapted to the visual perception of their avian pollinator vision.

  • Color strategies of camellias recruiting different pollinators

    Mori S., Hasegawa Y., Moriguchi Y.

    Phytochemistry (Phytochemistry)  207 2023年03月

    ISSN  00319422

     概要を見る

    Most ornithophilous plants have red flowers; this has been associated with ‘the bee avoidance hypothesis’, in which ornithophilous flowers may bear colors that are less conspicuous to bees than melittophilous flowers. In the genus Camellia, C. rusticana and C. japonica bear red flowers and yet recruit different pollinators; the former is entomophilous, while the latter is ornithophilous. C. japonica is considered to have been speciated from a common ancestor later than C. rusticana, accompanying a pollinator shift from insects to birds. Nevertheless, factors explaining the pollinator difference in camellias remain rudimentary. In this study, the color traits of the two camellias were investigated, to determine their color strategy to allure different pollinators. The behavior of bees towards the two camellias was examined by a two-choice assay. Flower color characteristics of the two camellias were analyzed with diffuse reflectance and fluorescence spectra. Based on the visual sensory system of bees and birds, the achromatic contrast, chromatic contrast, intensity, and spectral purity of the two species were evaluated, testing the bee avoidance hypothesis. Furthermore, the compounds responsible for the fluorescence, likely serving as a visual attractant, were identified by NMR and MS. Bees visited C. rusticana flowers almost exclusively and C. japonica hardly at all. Reflectance spectral data showed that C. rusticana petals are more conspicuous to bees than birds due to a UV-reflection secondary peak; and that C. japonica petals exhibited crucially low chromatic contrast against a leaf background to bees, suggesting them to be almost indistinguishable. On the other hand, C. japonica flowers appeared conspicuous to birds. The anthers of C. rusticana exhibited blue fluorescence derived from two anthranilates, while those of C. japonica did not. The two camellias offer different color strategies to be conspicuous to their respective pollinators, and C. japonica seemed to have evolved to avoid bees. Alterations in these color traits may have played a role in pollinator shift.

  • Fluorescence from abnormally sterile pollen of the japanese apricot

    Mori S., Shimma S., Masuko-Suzuki H., Watanabe M., Nakanishi T., Tsukioka J., Goto K., Fukui H., Hirai N.

    Plant Biotechnology (Plant Biotechnology)  38 ( 3 ) 355 - 366 2021年

    ISSN  13424580

     概要を見る

    We observed trees of the Japanese apricot, Prunus mume ‘Nanko’ (Rosaceae), bearing two types of flowers: 34% had blue fluorescent pollen under UV irradiation, and 66% had non-fluorescent pollen. The fluorescent pollen grains were abnormally crushed, sterile, and devoid of intine and pollenkitt. The development of microspores within anthers was investigated: in the abnormally developed anthers, tapetal cells were vacuolated at the unicellular microspore stage, and fluorescent pollen was produced. Compounds responsible for the blue fluorescence of pollen were identified as chlorogenic acid and 1-O-feruloyl-β-D-glucose. The anthers with fluorescent pollen contained 6.7-fold higher and 3.8-fold lower amounts of chlorogenic acid and N1,N5,N10-tri-p-coumaroylspermidine, respectively, compared to those with non-fluorescent pollen. The tapetal vacuolization, highly accumulated chlorogenic acid, and deficiency of N1,N5,N10-tri-p-coumaroylspermidine imply that low-temperature stress during the early unicellular microspore stage caused a failure in microsporogenesis. Furthermore, potential effects of the visual difference on the bee behavior were also discussed through the colorimetry. The sterility, likely induced by low-temperature stress, and the preference of honeybees for fluorescence may reduce the pollination efficiency of P. mume.

KOARA(リポジトリ)収録論文等 【 表示 / 非表示

競争的研究費の研究課題 【 表示 / 非表示

  • 貝殻の蛍光を介した二枚貝と寄生ガニの化学生態学

    2022年04月
    -
    2025年03月

    文部科学省・日本学術振興会, 科学研究費助成事業, 森 信之介, 若手研究, 補助金,  研究代表者

  • マルハナバチが植物に与える開花促進物質の探索および作用機構の解明

    2021年08月
    -
    2023年03月

    文部科学省・日本学術振興会, 科学研究費助成事業, 森 信之介, 研究活動スタート支援, 補助金,  研究代表者

 

担当授業科目 【 表示 / 非表示

  • 基礎化学実験

    2023年度

  • 応用化学実験B

    2023年度

  • 基礎化学実験

    2022年度

  • 応用化学実験B

    2022年度

  • 基礎化学実験

    2021年度

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