Shimamoto, Kyoko



Research Centers and Institutes, Keio University Global Research Institute (Mita)


Project Senior Assistant Professor (Non-tenured)/Project Assistant Professor (Non-tenured)/Project Lecturer (Non-tenured)


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  • Health inequity in pandemic anxiety about COVID-19 infection and socioeconomic consequences in Japan: A structural equation modeling approach

    Shimamoto K., McElroy E., Ibuka Y.

    SSM - Population Health (SSM - Population Health)  20 2022.12

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    Background: Health inequity in relation to COVID-19 infection and socioeconomic consequences is a major global concern. Mental health issues in vulnerable populations have received special attention in research and practice during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, there is limited evidence on the nature of the anxieties experienced as a result of COVID-19, and how such concerns vary across demographic groups. Aim: This study examines anxiety among the working population of Japan (aged 18–59), in terms of both COVID-19 infection and socioeconomic consequences, using an internationally validated tool, the Pandemic Anxiety Scale (PAS). Methods: Data were collected using an online survey (n = 2,764). The analyses included an exploratory factor analysis (EFA), a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and structural equation modeling (SEM), followed by validation of the Japanese version of the PAS. Results: A two-factor latent variable model shows the multidimensionality of anxiety in regard to the COVID-19 pandemic and the disparity across population groups in predicting the two defined anxiety dimensions. Several path coefficients showed somewhat unexpected and/or unique results from Japan compared with previous European studies. Specifically, self-reported health status was not significantly related to disease anxiety, and those who were not in paid employment reported lower consequence anxiety. The SEM results showed a greater number of significant exogenous variables for consequence anxiety compared to disease anxiety, highlighting disparities in pandemic anxiety by socioeconomic status in regard to socioeconomic consequences of the pandemic. Conclusion: In contrast to existing European studies, evidence from the current study suggests contextual patterns of health inequity. Due to the prolonged socioeconomic consequences of the pandemic, multidisciplinary research on mental health issues and the quality of life remains an important research agenda in exploring socioeconomic measures in context, towards addressing inequity concerns.

  • Examining the association between menstrual symptoms and health-related quality of life among working women in Japan using the EQ-5D

    Shimamoto K., Hirano M., Wada-Hiraike O., Goto R., Osuga Y.

    BMC Women's Health (BMC Women's Health)  21 ( 1 )  2021.12

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    Background: Menstrual symptoms have been identified as a substantial burden among women of reproductive age, affecting their health status and quality of life globally. A range of menstrual symptoms have been studied as they affect the health-related quality of life (HRQoL), showing variations across specific menstrual symptoms and study settings. A major concern is demonstrated due to menstrual symptoms in women’s professional and social life, and consequently societal and economic loss for women and the society at large. Yet evidence is scarce that estimates the index form HRQoL score related to menstrual symptoms that is needed for health economic evaluations. Methods: This study aims to investigate the association between menstrual symptoms and the HRQoL among working women in Japan in an index form, using a self-reporting questionnaire (n = 6048). The EQ-5D-3L (EuroQoL 5-dimension 3-level) is used that is a widely used tool to measure health outcomes for health economic evaluations globally. Multivariate regression analysis is conducted to assess the association between the HRQoL score and specific nineteen physical and mental conditions related to menstruation (e.g., pain, heavy bleeding, concentration, negative affect). Results: The index form HRQoL score for menstrual symptoms is estimated as 0.682 in the study population (where a score one suggests perfect health). The association of the HRQoL score varies substantially across the menstrual symptoms. Several of the physical conditions and disorders show a substantial negative association with the HRQoL score. Also, most of the mental and psychological issues are significantly and negatively related to the HRQoL score. Conclusions: This study suggests that HRQoL is substantially and negatively affected by menstruation among working women in Japan. Distinct variations of negative influences across menstrual symptoms underscore the multi-dimensional nature of menstruation and consequently the need of collective interventions to address these difficulties. The evidence of HRQoL continues to be an important area for future research on women’s health and health economic evaluations to inform effective and efficient resource allocations for relevant health policies and financing strategies.

  • Comprehensive and long-term surveys of COVID-19 sequelae in Japan, an ambidirectional multicentre cohort study: Study protocol

    Nakagawara K., Namkoong H., Terai H., Masaki K., Tanosaki T., Shimamoto K., Lee H., Tanaka H., Okamori S., Kabata H., Chubachi S., Ikemura S., Kamata H., Yasuda H., Kawada I., Ishii M., Ishibashi Y., Harada S., Fujita T., Ito D., Bun S., Tabuchi H., Kanzaki S., Shimizu E., Fukuda K., Yamagami J., Kobayashi K., Hirano T., Inoue T., Kagyo J., Shiomi T., Ohgino K., Sayama K., Otsuka K., Miyao N., Odani T., Oyamada Y., Masuzawa K., Nakayama S., Suzuki Y., Baba R., Nakachi I., Kuwahara N., Ishiguro T., Mashimo S., Minematsu N., Ueda S., Manabe T., Funatsu Y., Koh H., Yoshiyama T., Saito F., Ishioka K., Takahashi S., Nakamura M., Goto A., Harada N., Kusaka Y., Nakano Y., Nishio K., Tateno H., Edahiro R., Takeda Y., Kumanogoh A., Kodama N., Okamoto M., Umeda A., Hagimura K., Sato T., Miyazaki N., Takemura R., Sato Y., Takebayashi T., Nakahara J., Mimura M., Ogawa K., Shimmura S., Negishi K., Tsubota K., Amagai M., Goto R., Ibuka Y., Hasegawa N., Kitagawa Y., Kanai T., Fukunaga K.

    BMJ Open Respiratory Research (BMJ Open Respiratory Research)  8 ( 1 )  2021.11

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    Introduction The rapid spread of COVID-19 posed a global burden. Substantial number of people died of the disease in the acute phase of infection. In addition, a significant proportion of patients have been reported to suffer from post-acute phase symptoms, sequelae of COVID-19, which may negatively influence the quality of daily living and/or socioeconomic circumstances of the patients. However, no previous study has comprehensively and objectively assessed the quality of life of patients by using existing international scales. Further, evidence of socioeconomic consequences among patients with COVID-19 is scarce. To address the multidimensional issues from sequelae of COVID-19, evidence from comprehensive surveys beyond clinical perspectives is critical that investigates health, and social determinants of disease progression as well as socioeconomic consequences at a large scale. Methods and analysis In this study, we plan to conduct a nationwide and comprehensive survey for the sequelae of COVID-19 in a total of 1000 patients diagnosed at 27 hospitals throughout Japan. This study will evaluate not only the health-related status of patients from clinical perspectives but also the Health-related Quality of Life (HRQoL) scores, socioeconomic status and consequences to discuss the sequelae of the disease and the related risk factors. The primary endpoint is the frequency of long-term complications of COVID-19 infection. The secondary endpoints are risk factors for progression to sequelae of COVID-19 infection. The study will provide robust and important evidence as a resource to tackle the issues from the sequelae of COVID-19 from the multi-dimensional perspectives. Ethics and dissemination This trial was approved by the Keio University School of Medicine Ethics Committee (20200243, UMIN000042299). The results of this study will be reported at a society meeting or published in a peer-reviewed journal.

  • Investigating pathways linking women's status and empowerment to skilled attendance at birth in Tanzania: A structural equation modeling approach

    Shimamoto K., Gipson J.D.

    PLoS ONE (PLoS ONE)  14 ( 2 )  2019.02

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    Maternal and newborn mortality remain unacceptably high in sub-Saharan Africa where use of a skilled birth attendant (SBA) at delivery has remained low. Despite the recognized importance of women's empowerment as a key determinant of maternal and newborn health, evidence from sub-Saharan Africa is more limited. Using data from the 2010 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey (n = 4,340), this study employs a robust method-structural equation modeling (SEM)-to investigate the complex and multidimensional pathways through which women's empowerment affects SBA use. The results show that women's education and household decision-making are positively associated with SBA use. However, not all empowerment dimensions have similar effects. Attitudes towards sex negotiation and violence as well as early marriage are not significant factors in Tanzania. Mediation analysis also confirms the indirect effect of education on SBA use only through household decision-making. The findings underscore the utility of structural equation modeling when examining complex and multidimensional constructs, such as empowerment, and demonstrate potential causal inference to better inform policy and programmatic recommendations.

  • Examining the mechanisms by which women's status and empowerment affect skilled birth attendant use in Senegal: A structural equation modeling approach

    Shimamoto K., Gipson J.

    BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth (BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth)  17 ( Suppl 2 ) 341 2017.11

    ISSN  14712393

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    Background: Despite the reduction in maternal deaths globally, maternal mortality rates remain unacceptably high, particularly in some regions of the world. In sub-Saharan Africa, maternal mortality rates have even increased recently, with 201,000 deaths in 2015 as compared to 179,000 in 2013. Use of a skilled birth attendant (SBA) at delivery has remained low, despite evidence of the effectiveness of SBAs in reducing maternal deaths. Women's empowerment is increasingly recognized as a key determinant of maternal health care-seeking and outcomes, yet empirical examinations of the linkages between women's empowerment and delivery care use are particularly limited, especially from sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: Using data from the 2010 Senegal Demographic and Health Survey (n = 7451), in this study we employed structural equation modeling (SEM) to investigate the complex and multidimensional pathways by which three women's empowerment domains (household decision-making, attitudes towards violence, and sex negotiation) directly and indirectly affect SBA use. Results: Although variations were observed across measures, many of the women's status and empowerment measures were positively related to SBA use. Notably, women's education demonstrated a substantial indirect effect: higher education was related to older age at first marriage, which was associated with higher levels of empowerment and SBA use. In addition to age at first marriage, gender-role attitudes (e.g., progressive attitudes towards violence and sex negotiation) were significant mediators in the relationship between education and SBA use. However, household decision-making was not significantly associated with SBA use. Conclusions: Findings indicate significant effects of women's education, early marriage, and some dimensions of women's empowerment on SBA use. SEM was particularly useful in examining the complex and multidimensional constructs of women's empowerments and their effects. This study informs policy recommendations and programmatic efforts to reduce maternal mortality in sub-Saharan Africa by strengthening support for women's access to higher education, delaying marriage and childbearing among girls and young women, and supporting more equitable gender norms.

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