Savage, Patrick



Faculty of Environment and Information Studies (Shonan Fujisawa)


Associate Professor

E-mail Address

E-mail address

Related Websites


Books 【 Display / hide

  • Comparative musicology: The science of the world's music [Under contract]

    Patrick E. SAVAGE, Oxford University Press [under contract], 2021

Papers 【 Display / hide

  • Music as a coevolved system for social bonding

    PE Savage, P Loui, B Tarr, A Schachner, L Glowacki, S Mithen, WT Fitch

    Behavioral and Brain Sciences (Behavioral and Brain Sciences)   2021

    Research paper (scientific journal), Joint Work, Accepted,  ISSN  0140525X

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    Why do humans make music? Theories of the evolution of musicality have focused mainly on the value of music for specific adaptive contexts such as mate selection, parental care, coalition signaling, and group cohesion. Synthesizing and extending previous proposals, we argue that social bonding is an overarching function that unifies all of these theories, and that musicality enabled social bonding at larger scales than grooming and other bonding mechanisms available in ancestral primate societies. We combine cross-disciplinary evidence from archaeology, anthropology, biology, musicology, psychology, and neuroscience into a unified framework that accounts for the biological and cultural evolution of music. We argue that the evolution of musicality involves gene-culture coevolution, through which proto-musical behaviors that initially arose and spread as cultural inventions had feedback effects on biological evolution due to their impact on social bonding. We emphasize the deep links between production, perception, prediction, and social reward arising from repetition, synchronization, and harmonization of rhythms and pitches, and summarize empirical evidence for these links at the levels of brain networks, physiological mechanisms, and behaviors across cultures and across species. Finally, we address potential criticisms and make testable predictions for future research, including neurobiological bases of musicality and relationships between human music, language, animal song, and other domains. The music and social bonding (MSB) hypothesis provides the most comprehensive theory to date of the biological and cultural evolution of music.

  • The Global Jukebox: A public database of performing arts and culture

    A Wood, KR Kirby, C Ember, S Silbert, H Daikoku, J Mcbride, S Passmore, ...

    PsyArXiv  2021

  • Big Gods did not drive the rise of big societies throughout world history

    H Whitehouse, P François, PE Savage, D Hoyer, KC Feeney, E Cioni, ...

    OSF Preprints  2021

  • Cross-cultural work in music cognition: Challenges, insights, and recommendations

    N Jacoby, EH Margulis, M Clayton, E Hannon, H Honing, J Iversen, ...

    Music Perception 37 (3), 185-195 (Music Perception)  37 ( 3 ) 185 - 195 2020.02

    ISSN  07307829

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    © 2020 BY THE REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. MANY FOUNDATIONAL QUESTIONS IN THE psychology of music require cross-cultural approaches, yet the vast majority of work in the field to date has been conducted with Western participants and Western music. For cross-cultural research to thrive, it will require collaboration between people from different disciplinary backgrounds, as well as strategies for overcoming differences in assumptions, methods, and terminology. This position paper surveys the current state of the field and offers a number of concrete recommendations focused on issues involving ethics, empirical methods, and definitions of "music" and "culture.".

  • Rhythm, synchrony, and cooperation

    PE Savage, M Yamauchi, M Hamaguchi, B Tarr, Y Kitayama, S Fujii

    PsyArXiv  2020

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Papers, etc., Registered in KOARA 【 Display / hide

Reviews, Commentaries, etc. 【 Display / hide

  • Complex societies precede moralizing gods throughout world history

    Whitehouse H., François P., Savage P., Currie T., Feeney K., Cioni E., Purcell R., Ross R., Larson J., Baines J., ter Haar B., Covey A., Turchin P.

    Nature (Nature)  568 ( 7751 ) 226 - 229 2019.04

    Research paper, Joint Work,  ISSN  00280836

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    © 2019, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Limited. The origins of religion and of complex societies represent evolutionary puzzles 1–8 . The ‘moralizing gods’ hypothesis offers a solution to both puzzles by proposing that belief in morally concerned supernatural agents culturally evolved to facilitate cooperation among strangers in large-scale societies 9–13 . Although previous research has suggested an association between the presence of moralizing gods and social complexity 3,6,7,9–18 , the relationship between the two is disputed 9–13,19–24 , and attempts to establish causality have been hampered by limitations in the availability of detailed global longitudinal data. To overcome these limitations, here we systematically coded records from 414 societies that span the past 10,000 years from 30 regions around the world, using 51 measures of social complexity and 4 measures of supernatural enforcement of morality. Our analyses not only confirm the association between moralizing gods and social complexity, but also reveal that moralizing gods follow—rather than precede—large increases in social complexity. Contrary to previous predictions 9,12,16,18 , powerful moralizing ‘big gods’ and prosocial supernatural punishment tend to appear only after the emergence of ‘megasocieties’ with populations of more than around one million people. Moralizing gods are not a prerequisite for the evolution of social complexity, but they may help to sustain and expand complex multi-ethnic empires after they have become established. By contrast, rituals that facilitate the standardization of religious traditions across large populations 25,26 generally precede the appearance of moralizing gods. This suggests that ritual practices were more important than the particular content of religious belief to the initial rise of social complexity.

  • REPLY TO TOSH ET AL.: Quantitative analyses of cultural evolution require engagement with historical and archaeological research

    Currie, Thomas E., Turchin, Peter, Whitehouse, Harvey, Francois, Pieter, Feeney, Kevin, Mullins, Daniel, Hoyer, Daniel, Collins, Christina, Grohmann, Stephanie, Savage, Patrick E., Mendel-Gleason, Gavin, Turner, Edward, Dupeyron, Agathe, Cioni, Enrico, Reddish, Jenny, Levine, Jill, Jordan, Greine, Brandl, Eva, Williams, Alice, Cesaretti, Rudolf, Krueger, Marta, Ceccarelli, Alessandro, Figliulo-Rosswurm, Joe, Tuan, Po-Ju, Peregrine, Peter, Marciniak, Arkadiusz, Preiser-Kapeller, Johannes, Kradin, Nikolay, Korotayev, Andrey, Palmisano, Alessio, Baker, David, Bidmead, Julye, Bol, Peter, Christian, David, Cook, Connie, Covey, Alan, Feinman, Gary, Juliusson, Arni Daniel, Kristinsson, Axel, Miksic, John, Mostern, Ruth, Petrie, Cameron, Rudiak-Gould, Peter, ter Haar, Barend, Wallace, Vesna, Mair, Victor, Xie, Liye, Baines, John, Bridges, Elizabeth, Manning, Joseph, Lockhart, Bruce, Bogaard, Amy, Spencer, Charles

    PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America)  115 ( 26 ) E5841 - E5842 2018.06

    Introduction and explanation (scientific journal), Joint Work,  ISSN  0027-8424

Research Projects of Competitive Funds, etc. 【 Display / hide

  • Understanding global diversity in music perception and production


    Keio University, サベジ パトリック, 味見 純, 藤井 進也, 徳井 直生, Fund for the Promotion of Joint International Research (Fostering Joint International Research (B))

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    Music is a human universal, but there remains little data on cross-cultural musical variation. We will perform a series of experiments investigating global diversity in perception and production of musical 1) rhythm, 2) melody, 3) harmony, 4) language, 5) creativity, and 6) cooperation. In total we will conduct experiments with thousands of musicians and non-musicians from over a dozen countries around the world. Our findings will have implications for understanding the evolution of music and its place in society, including for composers, instrument manufacturers, copyright legislators, etc.

  • Cross-cultural diversity in perception and production of musical pitch


    MEXT,JSPS, Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research, サベジ パトリック, Grant-in-Aid for Early-Career Scientists , Principal Investigator

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    There is little cross-cultural data on the degree of variation in musical production and perception with which to understand the evolution of music. I propose to address this problem through a combination of 1) automated acoustic analysis of ~300 recordings of music, speech, and bird song recordings, and 2) perceptual experiments on ~300 participants from Japan and the USA. By synthesizing global data on pitch production and perception, I aim to shed new light on the way biology and culture combine to create human music, with important practical implications for the music industry.

  • Automatic analysis of the world’s music


    Keio Research Institute at SFC, Startup Grant, #HPatrick E. Savage#H, Research grant, Principal Investigator

  • Untangling the biological and cultural foundations of musical scales


    Keio University, Keio Gijuku Academic Development Funds, #HPatrick E. Savage#H, Research grant, Principal Investigator

  • Musical evolution and human migration


    Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science & Technology (MEXT), Japanese Government (MEXT) Scholarship, #HPatrick E. Savage#H, Research grant, Principal Investigator

Awards 【 Display / hide

  • Hirayama Ikuo Arts and Culture Prize

    #HPatrick E. Savage#H + 2 others, 2017, Tokyo University of the Arts

    Type of Award: Awards of Publisher, Newspaper Company and Foundation

  • Ikushi Prize

    #HPatrick E. Savage#H + 16 others, 2017, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Measuring the cultural evolution of music: With case studies of British-American and Japanese folk, art, and popular music

    Type of Award: Other Awards


Courses Taught 【 Display / hide











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