吉野 美保子 (ヨシノ ミホコ)

Yoshino, Mihoko

写真a

所属(所属キャンパス)

研究所・センター等 グローバルリサーチインスティテュート (信濃町)

職名

特任教授(有期)

 

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  • Response to Comment on "Nicotinamide mononucleotide increases muscle insulin sensitivity in prediabetic women"

    Klein, S. and Yoshino, M.

    Science 373 ( 6554 )  2021年07月

    査読有り,  ISSN  1095-9203

     概要を見る

    In evaluating any randomized clinical trial, it is important to determine whether baseline differences between groups could have affected the primary outcome. In our study, muscle insulin sensitivity, which was identical in both groups at baseline, improved after nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), not placebo, therapy. Differences in baseline intrahepatic triglyceride content between groups do not negate the effects of NMN observed in muscle.

  • Nicotinamide mononucleotide increases muscle insulin sensitivity in prediabetic women

    Yoshino, M., Yoshino, J., Kayser, B. D., Patti, G. J., Franczyk, M. P., Mills, K. F., Sindelar, M., Pietka, T., Patterson, B. W., Imai, S. I. and Klein, S.

    Science 372 ( 6547 ) 1224 - 1229 2021年06月

    査読有り,  ISSN  1095-9203

     概要を見る

    In rodents, obesity and aging impair nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) biosynthesis, which contributes to metabolic dysfunction. Nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) availability is a rate-limiting factor in mammalian NAD(+) biosynthesis. We conducted a 10-week, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial to evaluate the effect of NMN supplementation on metabolic function in postmenopausal women with prediabetes who were overweight or obese. Insulin-stimulated glucose disposal, assessed by using the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, and skeletal muscle insulin signaling [phosphorylation of protein kinase AKT and mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR)] increased after NMN supplementation but did not change after placebo treatment. NMN supplementation up-regulated the expression of platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta and other genes related to muscle remodeling. These results demonstrate that NMN increases muscle insulin sensitivity, insulin signaling, and remodeling in women with prediabetes who are overweight or obese (clinicaltrial.gov NCT03151239).

  • Effect of Diet versus Gastric Bypass on Metabolic Function in Diabetes. Reply

    Yoshino, M., Kayser, B. D. and Klein, S.

    N Engl J Med 383 ( 24 ) 2393 - 2394 2020年12月

    査読有り,  ISSN  1533-4406

  • Obesity Is Associated With Increased Basal and Postprandial β-Cell Insulin Secretion Even in the Absence of Insulin Resistance

    van Vliet S., Koh H.C.E., Patterson B.W., Yoshino M., LaForest R., Gropler R.J., Klein S., Mittendorfer B.

    Diabetes (Diabetes)  69 ( 10 ) 2112 - 2119 2020年10月

    査読有り

     概要を見る

    We tested the hypothesis that obesity, independent of insulin resistance, is associated with increased insulin secretion. We compared insulin kinetics before and after glucose ingestion in lean healthy people and people with obesity who were matched on multiorgan insulin sensitivity (inhibition of adipose tissue lipolysis and glucose production and stimulation of muscle glucose uptake) as assessed by using a two-stage hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic pancreatic clamp procedure in conjunction with glucose and palmitate tracer infusions and positron emission tomography. We also evaluated the effect of diet-induced weight loss on insulin secretion in people with obesity who did not improve insulin sensitivity despite marked (∼20%) weight loss. Basal and postprandial insulin secretion rates were >50% greater in people with obesity than lean people even though insulin sensitivity was not different between groups. Weight loss in people with obesity decreased insulin secretion by 35% even though insulin sensitivity did not change. These results demonstrate that increased insulin secretion in people with obesity is associated with excess adiposity itself and is not simply a compensatory response to insulin resistance. These findings have important implications regarding the pathogenesis of diabetes because hyperinsulinemia causes insulin resistance and insulin hypersecretion is an independent risk factor for developing diabetes.

  • Effects of Diet versus Gastric Bypass on Metabolic Function in Diabetes

    Yoshino, M., Kayser, B. D., Yoshino, J., Stein, R. I., Reeds, D., Eagon, J. C., Eckhouse, S. R., Watrous, J. D., Jain, M., Knight, R., Schechtman, K., Patterson, B. W. and Klein, S.

    N Engl J Med 383 ( 8 ) 721 - 732 2020年08月

    査読有り,  ISSN  1533-4406

     概要を見る

    BACKGROUND: Some studies have suggested that in people with type 2 diabetes, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass has therapeutic effects on metabolic function that are independent of weight loss. METHODS: We evaluated metabolic regulators of glucose homeostasis before and after matched (approximately 18%) weight loss induced by gastric bypass (surgery group) or diet alone (diet group) in 22 patients with obesity and diabetes. The primary outcome was the change in hepatic insulin sensitivity, assessed by infusion of insulin at low rates (stages 1 and 2 of a 3-stage hyperinsulinemic euglycemic pancreatic clamp). Secondary outcomes were changes in muscle insulin sensitivity, beta-cell function, and 24-hour plasma glucose and insulin profiles. RESULTS: Weight loss was associated with increases in mean suppression of glucose production from baseline, by 7.04 mumol per kilogram of fat-free mass per minute (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.74 to 9.33) in the diet group and by 7.02 mumol per kilogram of fat-free mass per minute (95% CI, 3.21 to 10.84) in the surgery group during clamp stage 1, and by 5.39 (95% CI, 2.44 to 8.34) and 5.37 (95% CI, 2.41 to 8.33) mumol per kilogram of fat-free mass per minute in the two groups, respectively, during clamp stage 2; there were no significant differences between the groups. Weight loss was associated with increased insulin-stimulated glucose disposal, from 30.5+/-15.9 to 61.6+/-13.0 mumol per kilogram of fat-free mass per minute in the diet group and from 29.4+/-12.6 to 54.5+/-10.4 mumol per kilogram of fat-free mass per minute in the surgery group; there was no significant difference between the groups. Weight loss increased beta-cell function (insulin secretion relative to insulin sensitivity) by 1.83 units (95% CI, 1.22 to 2.44) in the diet group and by 1.11 units (95% CI, 0.08 to 2.15) in the surgery group, with no significant difference between the groups, and it decreased the areas under the curve for 24-hour plasma glucose and insulin levels in both groups, with no significant difference between the groups. No major complications occurred in either group. CONCLUSIONS: In this study involving patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes, the metabolic benefits of gastric bypass surgery and diet were similar and were apparently related to weight loss itself, with no evident clinically important effects independent of weight loss. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02207777.).

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